Its coyote breeding season. Coyotes will be more aggessive. Then as pups develop they will need to feed them. Please be extra cautious.
The coyotes were out at Fairview Developmental Center, in Costa Mesa, this week howling and making calls that you do not normally here. The are in full mating season. They are known to be more aggressive at this time. But, I am sure that once they have a litter of pups they will be even more aggressive and hungry to feed their pups.
Please help your neighbors,city, county by letting us know when you sight coyotes, have an animal attacked or killed.
Awareness could save a pets life, or even a child’s life.
Excerpt from UC Pest Management
“Breeding occurs once annually, typically in late January and in February, with pups born in March and April. Parents and offspring continue to remain in a family group for about six months. Before giving birth, the adults excavate one or more dens in the soil, occasionally expanding the burrows of other animals, but sometimes using hollow logs, rock piles, or culverts. Typically, even when denning in suburban areas, they choose sites where human activity is minimal. If disturbed, the parents may move the litter to an alternate den site. Litter size is normally 4 to 7 pups and may depend on the female’s nutritional status, which is a function of food availability and coyote population density.
Pups emerge from the natal den at about 3 weeks of age and grow quickly, relying primarily on their parents to provide them with food for the first few months. By late fall, juveniles may disperse to live independently, although if food resources are adequate, they can remain with their parents through the next year. Coyotes can be heard vocalizing (barking and howling) in the evening and night throughout most of the year, but they vocalize less when in the early stages of pup-rearing.”
Cats and dogs should be fed indoors, or if fed outdoors, food dishes should be promptly emptied and removed after pets have eaten. Store pet food indoors or in sealed heavy-duty containers. Use refuse containers that have tight-fitting lids to prevent raccoons, dogs, or coyotes from having access to household garbage. Keep small pets such as cats, rabbits, and small dogs, indoors, or if outdoors, keep them within enclosed kennels. Large dogs should be brought inside after dark. Never allow cats or dogs to run free at any time, as they are easy prey. Because coyotes that come in contact with domestic animals may transmit diseases, vaccinate all pets for rabies, distemper, parvovirus, and other diseases, as recommended by a veterinarian.
When exercising your dog, always use a leash, and walk only in populated areas of high pedestrian traffic. You may want to carry a walking stick or cane that you can use to fend off an attack. Try not to establish a regular routine in terms of route or time of day, as coyotes can learn your schedule and have been known to lie in wait to attack. Avoid walking pets at dawn or dusk, and avoid areas of dense vegetation or cover. Coyotes are more likely to attack dogs during the pup-rearing season, if dogs come too near the den site. If coyotes establish a den site near a residential area, attempts should be made to harass the coyotes so that they move their pups to an alternative, more remote den site.
Never intentionally feed or provide water to coyotes, as this causes them to quickly lose their fear of people and become aggressive. Anyone who intentionally feeds coyotes is putting the entire neighborhood’s pets and children at risk of coyote attack and serious injury.
In addition, ask your neighbors to also follow the described methods in order to reduce the potential for conflicts with coyotes.
Behavior Around Humans
Normally, coyotes are elusive animals that avoid contact with humans. Most active after dusk and before daylight, they are typically seen only at a distance. This trait may be a response to hunting, trapping, and other efforts to control coyote predation. Indeed, coyotes have been harassed and killed ever since settlers first arrived in western North America with their livestock. In most areas of California, coyotes continue to behave in ways that minimize their contact with humans.
In areas where predator control activities are practiced, coyotes are particularly wary of humans and of changes in their environment. Similarly, they are also wary of humans in places where sport hunters pursue or shoot at coyotes. Their excellent sense of smell and their tendency to avoid new objects makes it very difficult to capture or even to study them, as they often recognize and evade traps, snares, and cameras.
Within urban and suburban areas in California, however, some coyotes have adapted to residential neighborhoods, parks, and open spaces, and seemingly have lost their fear of humans. This may be a result of behavioral changes that have occurred over several generations of coyotes, in localities where predator control is no longer practiced. Coyotes thrive in such areas because food, water, and shelter are abundant, and coyotes living in these environments may come to associate humans with food and protection. Once attracted to suburban areas, they prey on the abundant rodents, rabbits, birds, house cats, and small dogs that live in residential habitats. They also will feed on household garbage, pet food, and seeds and fruits of many garden and landscape plants. In some localities, this has resulted in the development of local coyote populations that seemingly ignore people, while a few coyotes have become increasingly aggressive toward humans. They will stalk and even attack children or adults, or attack pets being walked on a leash by their owners. More than 160 such attacks have occurred in California since the 1970s, and they are becoming more frequent, particularly in suburban areas of Southern California. While only one attack has been fatal (to a 3-year-old girl, attacked in her front yard in 1981), a number of attacks have resulted in serious injuries.
(I think these statistics are old, because I know that in the last couple years there were quite a few children attacked, one even dragged out of a sandbox at a playground full of people)
Recognizing Problem Coyote Behavior
As coyote numbers increase in cities, they become accustomed to the presence of people, especially if the people do not harass them. Studies of coyote attacks on pets and on humans have revealed a predictable pattern of change in coyote behavior in these environments (Table 1). This progression is accelerated when coyotes are provided abundant food, either unintentionally or intentionally, in residential areas. When it reaches the point where pets are being attacked or coyotes are seen in neighborhoods in early morning or late afternoon, area-wide corrective actions are recommended to prevent an escalation to attacks on humans. If coyotes are seen near your home, teach your children to identify them, recognize the potential for danger, and know what to do if they come in contact with a coyote. (See Responding to Coyote Aggression and Attack.)
Responding to Coyote Aggression and Attack. If you or your pets are approached by an aggressive or fearless coyote, try to frighten it away by shouting in a deep voice, waving your arms, throwing objects at the animal, and looking it directly in the eyes. Stand up if you are seated. If you are wearing a coat or vest, spread it open like a cape so that you appear larger. Retreat from the situation by walking slowly backward so that you do not turn your back on the coyote.
If you are bitten or scratched by a coyote, wash the affected area thoroughly with soap and water and then seek immediate medical attention. Although most problem coyotes are healthy, the risk of rabies is always present. Rabies can occur from a bite or scrape from an infected coyote, or if you handle your pet after it has been attacked and the coyote’s saliva comes into contact with broken skin or mucous membranes. Because rabies infections in humans are nearly always fatal, medical authorities typically recommend post-exposure immunization whenever a person comes into contact with a wild coyote during an attack.
Report any incidents of coyote aggression or attack to local authorities including your local animal control agency and the California Department of Fish & Game. Report any attacks on livestock to your county agricultural commissioner. If you encounter a coyote or suspect that you have lost a pet to a coyote in San Diego, Los Angeles or Orange counties in California, please report your encounter.
|Common name||Scientific name|
|Indian laurel fig||Ficus microcarpa var. nitida|
|Ornamental strawberry||Fragaria chiloensi|
|Date palm||Phoenix dactylifera|
|Passion fruit, Passion vine||Passiflora spp.|
|Sugar bush||Rhus ovata|
|Strawberry bush||Euonymus americanus|
|Strawberry tree||Arbutus unedo|
|Jujube, or Chinese date||Ziziphus jujuba|
|Brush cherries||Eugenia spp.|